If you’ve ever bought a lottery ticket, you’ll know that the winner will be paid a spot over a long period of time. What you may not notice, in the real print under the big money, is the minimum amount that the winner can have up front, without worrying about future payments. This amount is known as the cash option, or the current cash value of the advertised jackpot.

How does the lottery determine the value of the money option? It calculates the present value of each annuity payment, given an assumed interest rate and the number of years until each annuity is due. This is a technique called futures discounting or discounting the cash flow.

** What is a discounted cash flow?**

Cash flow is a way to calculate the current value of an asset – shares in a business, rental property or other income – based on the amount of money that the asset should generate in the future.

Future payments are based on a key concept in modern finance: the time value of money. This means that money increases in value over time because it can be invested to earn interest. So $100 today is worth more than $100 a year from now – at an annual interest rate of 5%, for example, $100 now would be $105 a year from now. In the years to come, the money will grow rapidly because of what is called compounding, which can be seen as interest earned and interest.

Here’s an example of compounding based on $100 earning 5% annual interest for three years. Interest is expressed as 0.05 units and 1, or 1.05 is constant:

$100 x 1.05 x 1.05 x 1.05 = $115.76 value added

You can think of reduction as the variable of compounding. While compounding starts with current money and calculates its growth over time through the reinvestment of principal and interest, discounting does something different: it generates money in the future and slowly reduce it by the same method of calling on today’s present value – discount. value.

Imagine if this person raised $100 in three years. If the assumed annual interest rate is 5%, the calculator works like this:

$100 ÷ 1.05 ÷ 1.05 ÷ 1.05 = present value is $86.38

So $100 three years from now is worth $86.38 today.

Here’s another way to think about the discount method. How many small business people say to themselves, “I want to have $1 million in 10 years. How much money do I need now, assuming I can earn 5% per year, to raise it to $1 million? »

Paying off $1 million at a rate of 5% compounded over 10 years, or 1.05 to the power of 10, or the exponent, comes to 1.62889 and the total would be:

$1,000,000 ÷ 1.62889 = discounted cash flow of $613,915

So, a small investor can start with $613,915 and let it grow at 5% annual interest for 10 years, up to $1 million.

**How to use the discount method?**

The main purpose of the discounted cash flow method is to determine the value or price for assets, such as the appropriate product price for a company. Comparing the company’s dividend yield to the stock price can help an investor determine whether the company is undervalued or overvalued.

For example, if reducing the company’s expected earnings leads to a high price of $125 in sales to $110, the investor may conclude that the company is not profitable and this is a good money buy.

Other uses of business finance include determining fair value for income-generating assets such as rental property or office space, or financing bonds or marketable loans. The break-even method can be used in the cost-benefit analysis of a business project or proposed investment.

**How does the prepaid system work?**

The discounting method begins with a series of estimated cash flows over a period of time in the future, usually years. Next, the discount rate is taken. For stocks, the discount rate is generally the company’s cost of capital or the rate of return required by shareholders. The average cost of capital is determined by the sum of the company’s debt and equity, and the interest rate that must be paid on each.

Each amount of money is discounted by the discount rate to the power (or exponent) of that period. For example, the second period of cash flow will be reduced by the squared discount rate, the third period will be reduced by the cubed discount rate, and so on.

Once the amount of each period is reduced, they are added together. For equity, a lump sum is applied to future cash flows, called terminal value. The sum of these discounted cash flows can work as a product plan or asset cost.

Amortization is common for most of the total depreciation, and it can vary depending on the estimated life of the depreciation – the estimate of the life of the business beyond the year of the first update. For example, one accountant may estimate a life of 10 years for the terminal cost, while another may use 20 years.

Many accountants and fund managers do more with the discounting process. They use a higher growth rate for the company in its early years, followed by a lower rate for the cost years. This makes the analysis of the discount rate more sophisticated, but it is also complex and potentially deceptive, as it uses two different rates.

**What is a discounted investment strategy? **

The basic formula for discounting, or DFC, is as follows:

DCF = CF + CF2 + CF3 + CF4 + CF5 + CF (n)

(1 + r) (1 + r) ² (1 + r)³ (1 + r) ⁴ (1 + r)⁵ (1 + r)ⁿ

DCF = the sum of the discounted cash flow over time and the investment and cost of ownership

CF = cash flow (or cash flow or cash flow) per period, usually one year = discount rate

For example with numbers, the DFC format might look like this. Company X, which is currently trading at $375 per share, has the following expected earnings per share:

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6–15

$20 $40 $60 $80 $100 $400

Assumption: 7% discount rate

End value: 10 years after 1 to 5 years

A reduction in the amount of money at 7% in the power of each year, while 6 to 15 years (prices) reduced at 7% in a power of 10 will be:

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6–15

$18.69 $34.94 $48.98 $61.04 $71.30 $203.34

The sum of the annual expenses is $438.29 per share. An investor might conclude that Company X appears to be undervalued because its stock price of $375 is below its cash flow.

**The value and proportion of paid-up capital **

Cash flow analysis can benefit business leaders and entrepreneurs in a number of ways:

- It tries to establish the intrinsic value of an activity, resource or project, independent of market value or price. An assessment based on the discounted cash flow method can, for example, save a business owner from investing in an expansion that will not pay off.
- It takes into account key expectations and assumptions, such as the company’s expected cost and depreciation rate, as well as the company’s life.
- It can be used to determine the rate of return of an investment or business plan, and for cost benefit analysis from investment banks of proposed mergers and acquisitions.
- Funding is used in the analysis of situations and psychological evaluations, sometimes called what-if analysis. For example, investors can increase the discount rate by one percentage point to see how the company’s value changes.

At the same time, this reduced income has some drawbacks, including:

- It is based on assumptions and expectations, and the calculation of the amount of money paid is very sensitive to the changes that are assumed in these expectations, making the figure subject to error.
- Since the income that is paid looks at the activity of the business or activity outside, ignores the company or similar activities, there is no basis for the relative value – there is no price the market of Company X against its competitors. Analysts and financial managers often use stock market analysis and price-to-market comparisons to make investment decisions.